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【和訳】モザンビークの軍事状況の農村開発への悪影響に関する国際声明

2014年2月13日に、日本にも繰り返し来日しているUNAC(モザンビーク全国農民連合)からリリースされた声明の英語訳が送られてきました。ポルトガル語(原文)は、UNACのページをご参照ください。モザンビークの政治軍事状況が、如何に農民たちの生活に悪影響を及ぼしているか分かる声明です。

以下、出来上がったばかりの和訳を貼り付けます。

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モザンビークの現状に関する国際声明

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本声明の署名団体は、現在のモザンビークの農村部で起きている大規模な人々の強制退去と拡大する暴力について懸念を表明し、モザンビーク小農の権利を尊重し擁護するよう、モザンビーク政府と国際社会に対し要求します。

モザンビーク全国農民連合(ポルトガル語訳略称、UNAC)は、2014年2月13日、モザンビークの農村部で起きている殺害と、大規模な人々の強制退去、そして暴力を許容する情勢が蔓延しつつある状況を非難するプレスリリースを発しました【1】。

UNACは、21年前に、16年間の内戦を経て実現した和平が崩壊しつつあることに深刻な懸念を表明しています。被害を被った地域に住むUNACのメンバーの証言によれば、モザンビーク民族抵抗運動(RENAMO)とモザンビーク政府軍の間で行われている攻撃と衝突がモザンビーク農民の安全を脅かすのみでなく、彼らが農地を耕したり農作業を行うことの妨げになっています。これらのすべてが、今年の収穫やモザンビークの食料主権について、深刻な影響を与えています。

特に、直接あるいは間接的に、強制退去、嫌がらせ、脅迫の被害に遭った69,000軒の農家(約345,000人)の状況を懸念しており、被害を受けた郡は、ソファラ州のマシャンガ、シバババ、マリンゲ、ゴロンゴーサ、ニャマタンダ、ドンド郡、テテ州ではモアティゼ郡、マニカ州ではマコッサ郡、ナンプラ州ではラパレとメクブリ郡、インハンベーン州ではオモイネ、フンアオウロ、ビランクロス郡となっています。

わたしたち本声明の署名団体は、2009年からモザンビーク小農の人権と農業と農村開発についてモニタリングを行ってきました。わたしたちは、モザンビーク小農の社会経済活動に関する権利が広範にわたって意図的に侵害されている現状を非常に懸念しています。悪化する国内の紛争はモザンビーク社会の平和と調和を脅かすものです。

以上を鑑み、わたしたちは、UNACが戦闘者/武装勢力に対して呼びかけているすべての敵対行為の即時停止、武力闘争の放棄、紛争の解決に向けたインクルーシブで民主的な対話メカニズムへの復帰を支持します。

UNACによれば、モザンビークでは、市民に対する脅迫や嫌がらせのみでなく、専横的な市民の拘留や殺害が目撃証言や報道に基づき報告されています。しかしながら、国内で過去数か月に起きた個々の事件についての独立した情報が不足しているため、逮捕されたり殺害された被害者の数が判明していません。これまで、報告があった事件についての調査は行われておらず、したがって、不処罰状況が生まれており、モザンビークの人々を危うくしている現状です。

以上から、わたしたちは、モザンビーク政府に対し、武力衝突が発生してからこれまでの数か月間で起きた事件について、特に、報告があった脅迫、逮捕、殺害、そして人権侵害のすべてについて、独立した調査を受け入れることを求めます。

現在継続しているRENAMOとモザンビーク政府軍の衝突は、16年の内戦に終止符を打った1992年のローマ和平協定に反するものです。この和平交渉には、国連、アフリカ連合、ヨーロッパ連合がオブザーバーとして参加しています。従って、国際社会、特に国連、アフリカ連合、そしてヨーロッパ連合に、モザンビークにおいて現在進行中の武力衝突を止めることと、報告されている人権侵害について調査を進めるべく関与を求めます。

さらに、わたしたちは、モザンビーク国と国際社会に対し、現在の開発戦略の見直し、例えばUNACによって作成されている「家族農業の支援国家計画」に示されるモザンビーク小農の視点を特に反映させることにより、モザンビークの小農の権利を尊重し擁護するよう要求します。


【1】UNACプレスリリース
「モザンビークにおける政治状況と軍事活動が農業開発に及ぼす影響」 2014年2月 http://www.unac.org.mz/index.php/7-blog/74-os-impactos-da-situacao-politica-e-militar-nodesenvolvimento-da-agricultura-em-mocambique

署名団体
Africa Japan Forum, Japan (特定非営利活動法人 アフリカ日本協議会)
Centro Internationale Crocevia, Italy
Concerned Citizen Group with the Development of Mozambique, Japan (モザンビーク開発を考える市民の会)
Federação de Órgãos para Assistência Social e Educacional (FASE), Brazil
FIAN International
GRAIN, International
La Via Campesina, International
Transnational Institute (TNI), Netherlands



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全国農民連合(UNAC)による声明 2014年2月13日

モザンビークの農業開発における治安・軍事状況の影響
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Press Release

Impacts of the security and military situation on agricultural development in Mozambique
http://www.unac.org.mz/index.php/7-blog/74-os-impactos-da-situacao-politica-e-militar-no-desenvolvimento-da-agricultura-em-mocambique

(Maputo, 13 February 2014 ) - The National Union of Mozambican Peasants (known by its Portuguese acronym, UNAC), a social movement fighting to defend the economic, social and cultural rights of Mozambican peasants, repudiates and expresses its deep outrage over the killing and displacement of thousands of comrades and fellow citizens due to the increasing deterioration and worsening of the current security and political situation. UNAC also expresses solidarity with all peasants – women and men alike – and other citizens who are victims of the dangerous situation that faces us now.

Twenty-one years ago, peace was achieved as a result of dialogue, understanding, reconciliation and the expression of a spirit of humanity and fraternity among Mozambicans. Since it began in April 2013, the current crisis has intensified to an alarming level, with political and military tension now threatening the reconciliation process and the consolidation and deepening of the democratic rule of law established in the country 20 years ago after the end of 16 years of war.

Our country is facing diverse negative impacts of this crisis, particularly in the communities, districts and provinces most affected by the military encounters.

Hundreds of thousands of peasant families – including children, women and people with special needs – have been forced to leave their homes, losing their assets and livelihoods. The constant attacks and the military clashes between armed men alleged to belong to the National Resistance of Mozambique (known by its Portuguese acronym, Renamo) and the Mozambican Armed Defence Forces, including security officials and officials of the Rapid Intervention Force, have led to serious social and economic consequences affecting agriculture, education, health, transport and trade.

Many sectors of the Mozambican population including intellectuals, activists, religious and other civil society organizations and individuals have warned about the harmful impacts of a return to war on the political and social stability of the country and have urgently called for the re-establishment of a climate of peace, democracy, development and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

The worst political, economical and social effects of the current political and military crisis are being felt in the districts of Machanga, Chibabava, Maringué, Gorongosa, Nhamatanda and Dondo in Sofala; Moatize in Tete; Macossa in Manica; Rapale and Mecuburi in Nampula; Homoine, Funhalouro and Vilanculos in Inhambane. Many families and citizens living in these districts have been forced to move and are now de facto "internal refugees" of war, though national and international authorities have not recognized them as such.

According to UNAC's sources, there are more than 16 million peasants in Mozambique who depend mainly on agricultural production for their livelihoods. The impacts of the political and military tension threaten to severely affect the growing season 2013/2014, launched by Mr Armando Guebuza, President of the Republic, on November 8, 2013, in Xai-Xai, Gaza Province. This puts both the objectives set out in the Economic and Social Plan of 2014 and the food sovereignty of the Mozambicans at risk.

According to the Mozambican government's projections in the Economic and Social Plan for 2014, total agricultural production is expected to grow 7.1%. Cereal production is expected to be approximately 2.3 millions of tonnes: including 1,679,000 tonnes of maize and 362,000 tonnes of rice. But the country's male and female peasants who produce more than 90% of the national food supply are the most affected by the current war in the country. If this situation continues until March this year, the impact on the growing and harvest season will be disastrous.
According to government data, Sofala – the province most affected by the conflict – produced approximately 1,789,010 tonnes of crops in the 2012/2013 harvest. The average productivity rate was of 2.39 tonnes per hectare, which represents an increase of about 20% compared with the 2010/2011 harvest. Agricultural production in the districts of Nhamatanda, Gorongosa, Marringué, Chibabava, Machanga and Dondo, which are responsible for 50% of the total production in this province, will be impaired this year due to the fact that peasants had to flee their fields or are only partially able to cultivate them due to the climate of uncertainty and the suspension of agricultural extension services.

Based on existing data, UNAC estimates that around 345,000 peasants (approx. 69,000 families) are directly or indirectly affected by the war in the districts of Machanga, Chibabava, Maringué, Gorongosa, Nhamatanda and Dondo in Sofala; Moatize in Tete; Macossa in Manica; Rapale and Mecuburi in Nampula; Homoine, Funhalouro and Vilanculos in Inhambane. These figures refer to refugee families and families whose movement and security is restricted by the climate of war, affecting their agricultural activities.

People's reports and credible sources have confirmed cases of intimidation and harassment of peasants, female and male, by both parties. Peasants have been accused of belonging to or collaborating with one of the parties to the conflict, simply for continuing to live in areas of conflict and carrying out agricultural activities. Many such cases have been reported in the districts of Gorongosa and Chibabava. On the other hand, many peasants have been displaced and housed in precarious accommodation centers without access to adequate housing clean water or food.

The existing climate of war and the consequent infringement of rights, including the right to life, the right to adequate housing, the right to adequate food, the right to decent work, the right to freedom of movement and to live in any part of the country stands in contrast to the declaration of agriculture as a priority on the continental agenda by African Heads of State and Government (adopted at the 22nd African Union Summit on January 30-31 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

This apparent public recognition of agriculture by African leaders will make sense only if a climate of peace prevails in Mozambique, Africa and the world. We as an African country dream of the comprehensive fulfillment and the practical implementation of the Maputo Declaration of 2003 in which States, including Mozambique, committed to increase the budget for agriculture to ten percent of the total. In addition to these pledges to strengthen the agricultural sector, we also highlight the decision of the General Assembly of the United Nations to declare 2014 as the International Year of Family Farming. This supports peasant families in reaffirming their urgent need for peace so that they can continuing meeting their essential commitments to the Mozambican people, always guided by the spirit of national reconciliation.

At this critical moment of fear and terror that hovers over peasant families across the country, we, peasant leaders, members and activists of all UNAC, reiterate our solidarity and full and unconditional support to the comrades, who, with courage and determination, have hosted the district unions and fellow refugees in their homes. Moreover, we reaffirm our inalienable commitment to peasant agriculture and to the struggle for the realization of the constitutional rights in defense of life. We remain firm in our fight, oriented and in full accordance with the constitutional provision under which agriculture is the basis of development of our country.
Peasants, female and male, demand from the warring parties an immediate end to hostilities, and the abandoning of armed struggle as the only way to resolve disputes. It is imperative to end all attacks and military clashes that affect the development of sovereign peasant agriculture and the wellbeing of all Mozambicans. Likewise we urge the parties to re-establish
mechanism of dialogue which are broad, inclusive, transparent, effective and democratic.

"With shovels in our hands and our feet firmly on the earth, we dream of a better and viable Mozambique, where everyone can feel her/himself to be the sons and daughters of peasants of this land for which we fought and liberated!"

UNAC
A united peasantry will triump!
Maputo, February13, 2014



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MozambiqueKaihatsu

Author:MozambiqueKaihatsu
「モザンビーク開発を考える市民の会」の公式サイトへようこそ!本サイトでは、モザンビークの草の根の人びとの側に立った現地・日本・世界の情報共有を行っています。特に、現地住民に他大な影響を及ぼす日本のODA農業開発事業「プロサバンナ」や投資「鉱物資源開発」に注目しつつ、モデルとされるブラジル・セラード開発についての議論も紹介。国際的な食・農・土地を巡る動きも追っています。

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