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【人権危機】ジャーナリスト暗殺(8月28日)、カステルブランコ教授の裁判開始(8月31日)

Crisis of Freedom of Expression in Mozambique
モザンビークにおける人権・言論の自由をめぐる危機
【ニュースクリップ】


世界が、カステルブランコ教授と独立系新聞2紙の編集長の訴追に注目している中で、モザンビークで最も尊敬されるジャーナリストの一人であるパウロ・マシャヴァ氏(別の独立系新聞Diario de Noticiasの創設者・編集長)の暗殺が起きました。

■カステルブランコ教授らの件は以下参照
http://mozambiquekaihatsu.blog.fc2.com/blog-entry-168.html
アムネスティインターナショナル日本のページ
http://www.amnesty.or.jp/get-involved/ua/ua/2015ua162.html

モザンビークにおけるジャーナリストの暗殺は例がなく、2000年のカルロス・カルドーゾの暗殺事件以外には現在までありませんでした。マシャヴァ氏は元々政府系のラジオ局のスタッフとして長年活躍し、その後独立系の新聞にうつったのですが、1978年に国際ジャーナリスト連盟のモザンビーク支部設立に尽力するなど、モザンビーク内の報道・言論・表現の自由の拡大と保証のために、多大なる貢献をしてきました。

最近は、数々の汚職ケース、そしてカステルブランコ教授らの訴追に対して、国内のジャーナリスト連合の非難声明をまとめるなど、悪化する一方のモザンビークのガバナンス・人権状況に対して、社会の中で先頭に立って闘っている最中の暗殺でした。モザンビーク政府は「治安が悪いから」等と言明しましたが、早朝6時に大通りをジョギング中に、車の中から撃たれこの車は撃った後走り去っています。窃盗等を目的とした事件ではなく、明確に暗殺事件であり、モザンビーク政府関係者がそのように言明すること事態が問題です。以下、今年1月に新政権が誕生してから起きていること、今回の暗殺事件についてNGOらでまとめた情報です。

*カステルブランコらの裁判の状況は以下のFBサイトで確認できます。
https://www.facebook.com/LiberdadeMoz?pnref=story

【2015年1月のニュッシ政権誕生以降起きていること】
① 2月:国立公園でのサイ密猟を取材中の国際ジャーナリスト2名の拘束と訴追
② 3月:野党案を支持したシスタック教授(憲法学)の暗殺
③ 6月:与党FRELIMO事務局長の汚職を報じた独立新聞に賠償命令
④ 6月:前大統領の退陣をフェースブックで要求したカステルブランコ教授(経済学)と2独立新聞編集長の訴追決定
*8月31日裁判
⑤ 8月26日:モザンビーク・ジャーナリスト連合は④上記訴追の中止を要求
⑥ 8月28日:最も尊敬されるジャーナリスト&新聞のマシャヴァ独立新聞編集長の暗殺
(⑤の実現に尽力)


【8月26日】「モザンビーク・ジャーナリスト連合は、ゲブーザ(前大統領)の誹毀裁判に抗議する」
JOURNALISTS’ UNION CONDEMNS GUEBUZA LIBEL CASE
Maputo, 26 Aug (AIM) – Mozambique’s National Union of Journalists (SNJ) has demanded that the libel case against economist Carlos Nuno Castel-Branco and journalists Fernando Mbanze and Fernando Veloso be dropped.

Castel-Branco is accused of libeling the then President, Armando Guebuza, in an open letter which he posted on Facebook in November 2013. Prosecutors have charged him under the law on crimes against state security, since Mozambican legislation classifies defaming the head of state, and a range of other political figures, as a security offence.

Mbanze and Veloso are the editors of the papers “Mediafax” and “Canal de Mocambique” which reprinted Castel-Branco’s Facebook post. They have been charged with the crime of “abuse of press freedom”. Since Veloso has been undergoing medical treatment in Portugal, he may be unable to attend the trial, which is scheduled for next Monday.

The brief statement from the SNJ expressed the union’s full solidarity with Mbanze and Veloso, declaring that freedom of expression and of the press are gains of Mozambicans which should be defended by all. While the union thought it natural that journalists, anywhere in the world, should be held responsible for what they write, it believed that dragging reporters into court was an act of intimidation that interfered in the freedom of expression.

A well-attended public meeting on Tuesday also demanded that the impending court case be dropped. The three speakers, Fernando Goncalves, of the Mozambican chapter of the regional press freedom body MISA (Media Institute of Southern Africa), Tomas Vieira Mario, of Sekelekani (Centre of Communication Studies and Research), and Paul Fauvet, editor of the AIM English service, all believed that the case against Castel-Branco, Mbanze and Veloso is illegal.

“For MISA, this case is unconstitutional, incoherent, trivial and ridiculous”, said Goncalves. “We urge that, if there is no time to annul the case, the judge use his common sense and acquit the accused”. Vieira Mario argued that the charges are an assault against the constitutionally guaranteed freedom of expression, and are an attempt to criminalise the expression of an opinion.

Fauvet pointed out that the prosecutors have ignored the amnesty law passed last year by the Mozambican parliament, the Assembly of the Republic. This law amnestied all crimes against state security allegedly committed between March 2012 and August 2014. The law states categorically that it applies to all crimes “of any nature” related to military crimes and crimes against state security.
(中略)
It is hard to see anything libelous in Castel-Branco’s letter. Its charges against Guebuza are exclusively political. It makes no mention of the former President’s private life, and does not accuse him of embezzlement or of any other crime.

The case has come to international attention, and the human rights organization Amnesty International has announced that, should the court jail Castel-Branco, Mbanze or Veloso, it will regard them as “prisoners of conscience”, which would deal a serious blow to Mozambique’s international standing. (AIM)

【8月28日】「国際ジャーナリスト連盟は、モザンビークでのジャーナリスト殺害を強く非難する」
IFJ Condemns Killing of Journalist in Mozambique
http://www.ifj.org/nc/news-single-view/backpid/1/article/ifj-condemns-killing-of-journalist-in-mozambique/

The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) has today condemned the killing of Paulo Machava, a senior Mozambican journalist who was shot dead this morning in the capital Maputo by unknown gunmen.

According to local media, the editor-in-chief of online newspaper Diário de Notícias was gunned down in Maputo city center between 5:30 and 6am this morning as he was out exercising before starting his work. Unidentified armed men shot him four times - two in the head and two in the back- from a car in Vladimir Lenine Avenue, one of the city's main arteries, before driving away, the IFJ affiliated National Journalists' Union said. The motive remains unclear.
Media reported that Machava was leading a campaign supporting the economist Nuno Castel-Branco and journalists Fernando Veloso and Fernando Banze who are on trial. Mr. Castel-Branco faces national security charges while the two journalists are accused of press freedom abuses. Their cases arose from Castel-Branco’s open letter to former President Armando Guebuza which was posted on his Facebook page in 2013 and published by the journalists’ media outlets.
Paulo Machava was an experienced and very well-known journalist in the country who had previously worked for Rádio Moçambique and Savana weekly paper, the union added. He was a founder member of the IFJ’s affiliate in the country in 1978.
“We are saddened by this news and we join our affiliate in Mozambique in condemning the killing of Paulo Machava,” said the IFJ President, Jim Boumelha. “We urge the authorities to immediately open a fully transparent and rigorous investigation to clarify the cause of the killing and to identify the culprits and the mastermind so there will be no impunity for this outrageous murder. Our thoughts are with his beloved ones.”


【8月28日】国境なき記者団「モザンビークのオンライン新聞編集長がマプート路上で銃殺される」

28 August 2015
Mozambique: Online Newspaper Editor Gunned Down On Maputo Street
http://en.rsf.org/mozambique-online-newspaper-editor-gunned-28-08-2015,48269.html

Reporters Without Borders is alarmed to learn that Paulo Machava, the well-known editor of the online Diario de Noticias newspaper, was gunned down on a Maputo street today against a backdrop of tension for media personnel in Mozambique.

Machava was shot at around 6 a.m. as he was jogging along Vladimir Lenin Avenue, one of the city’s main thoroughfares, before going to work. Witnesses said the shots were fired by gunmen in a car.
Previously employed by the independent weekly Savana and state-owned Radio Moçambique, Machava recently expressed support for journalists who are being prosecuted in violation of the 2014 amnesty law on a charge of defaming the president.

“It is extremely disturbing that a leading journalist has been gunned down on one of the capital’s street,” said Clea Kahn-Sriber, the head of the Reporters Without Borders Americas desk.
“Whatever its origin, this is a message of extraordinary violence. Coming after government opponent Gilles Cistac’s recent murder and the harsh judicial measures adopted with several journalists, this suggests that it is strictly forbidden to criticize the authorities.”
Mozambique’s judicial system has distinguished itself by its recent severity towards media personnel.
The victims include Fernando Mbanze and Fernando Veloso, who have been charged since December 2013 with “illegally media activity” and “threatening state security” for publishing a Facebook post by economist Carlos Nuno Castel-Branco in their respective newspapers, Mediafax and Canal de Moçambique. The post was critical of the president.

They continue to be prosecuted although their cases should have been covered by a law passed by parliament in 2014 granting an amnesty for all crimes against state security (including acts of physical violence and destruction of material) committed between March 2012 and August 2014.

In June, Nelson Mucandze, a journalist with the now defunct weekly Expresso Moz, and Anselmo Sengo, the weekly’s publisher, were ordered to pay exorbitant damages of 10 million meticals (256,000 euros) in a libel suit brought by Filipe Paunde, the former secretary-general of the political party Frelimo.

【8月28日】ジャーナリスト保護委員会「モザンビークでジャーナリストが銃殺される」
Committee to Protect Journalists
Journalist Shot Dead in Mozambique
https://www.cpj.org/2015/08/journalist-shot-dead-in-mozambique.php

New York — An unidentified gunman shot dead a Mozambican journalist who was out jogging in the capital city of Maputo early today, according to news reports. Paulo Machava was the publisher of the news website Diario de Noticias and had worked with Rádio Moçambique and the weekly Savana, according to reports. Machava was also involved in a campaign supporting an economist and two reporters who are being tried for defamation, the state news agency said. The economist had criticized former President Armando Guebuza and the reporters had republished the criticism.

"We are appalled by the brazen murder of Paulo Machava and call on authorities to investigate the crime efficiently, identify the motive, and prosecute the killers," said CPJ Africa Program Coordinator Sue Valentine. "Machava's murder has no place in a country striving to build a democracy that two decades ago emerged from civil conflict."

CPJ has documented the killing of only one journalist in direct relation to his work since the organization began keeping records in 1992. In November 2000, Carlos Cardoso, editor of the daily newsletter Metical, was gunned down in Maputo outside his office after the outlet published an investigation into alleged corruption at a major Mozambican bank. In 2003, six men were convicted for the murder, including one, Anibal dos Santos Junior, who was sentenced to 30 years, according to news reports. The son of former President Joaquim Chissano was charged as the mastermind but died before the trial.
For data and analysis on Mozambique, visit CPJ's Mozambique page.

【AP通信】「モザンビーク・犯罪報道で著名なジャーナリストが殺害される」
Mozambican journalist, known for crime reporting, killed
2015年8月29日
MAPUTO, Mozambique (AP) — A veteran Mozambican journalist, known for his crime reporting, was gunned down on the streets of the capital.Paulo Machava was shot by unknown assailants on Friday, while on his morning jog in Maputo.

"We don't know the motives for the killing but we will work hard to trace the killers," police spokesman Orlando Modumane told The Associated Press on Saturday.

A private security guard found Machava's body lying in a pool of blood. He said he heard four gunshots before seeing young men drive away."They're professionals," the guard told journalists, saying they moved quickly, using AK-47 assault rifles.Machava's brother Januario told reporters he believed the shooters trailed their victim, studying his daily routine.

Machava once hosted a radio show covering crime on the state-run Radio Mozambique. He then reported for a weekly newspaper, covering the assassination of well-known journalist Carlos Cardoso in 2000. He published a series of reports on the man who was later found guilty of ordering Cardoso's killing.

He was the founder and editor of a news website at the time of his death.

Machava's murder created "a climate of fear, compromising press freedom," the Media Institute of Southern Africa said in a statement."This is once more a way of trying to silence journalists in our country," said Eduardo Constantino, the chair of the Mozambique's National Union of Journalists.

"The news of Machava's death shocked many in Mozambique," said fellow journalist Americano Cumbe, who described Machava's work as "outstanding."

In March, prominent lawyer and constitutional law expert Gilles Cistac was assassinated as he drove through Maputo. Police have not arrested anyone linked to his death.

【南アフリカMail&Guardian】
「モザンビーク人ジャーナリスト・マシャヴァが車からの襲撃で銃弾に倒れる。6ヶ月前のトップ弁護士の殺害と呼応する」
Mozambican journalist Machava shot dead in drive-by attack; echoes killing of top lawyer 6 months ago

A VETERAN Mozambican crime journalist was killed in a drive-by shooting in downtown Maputo on Friday in an attack that echoed the murder of a prominent lawyer six months ago. Paulo Machava, publisher of the online Diario de Noticias, was gunned down while taking his daily morning jog along one of the capital’s main streets.

“A group of armed individuals fatally shot Paulo Machava before fleeing,” police spokesman Arnaldo Chefe told a news conference. The gunmen, who was driving a white pick-up truck, fired between four and six shots before speeding off, according to preliminary police investigations. Street vendors who witnessed the attack confirmed to AFP that the shots were fired from a vehicle.

Machava, who was in his 50s, had previously worked for the independent weekly Savana and for state radio.

The style of killing was similar to that in early March of Gilles Cistac, a naturalised Mozambican citizen of French origin and a constitutional law expert who was highly critical of the government. For some, it will also bring memories of the 2000 murder of celebrated Mozambique journalist Carlos Cardoso. His murder followed his newspaper’s investigation into corruption in the privatisation of Mozambique’s biggest bank.

【ジャーナリスト保護委員会のモザンビーク特設ページ】
Mozambique charges journalists investigating rhino poaching
New York, February 20, 2015--Mozambican authorities have charged two international journalists with trespassing and invasion of privacy in connection with their investigation of rhino poaching, according to news reports and one of the journalists. The Committee to Protect Journalists calls on Mozambique to drop the charges and ensure the journalists' safety.
February 20, 2015 4:24 PM ET

Mozambique soldiers assault journalists
Soldiers from the Mozambique Defense Force (FADM) beat up two journalists from Independent Television Mozambique (TIM) who were reporting on a confrontation between the military and locals in a town close to the capital Maputo on November 7, 2013.
November 11, 2013 12:35 PM ET
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